Islam in the interior
This is not the place to engage in an in depth analysis of the spread of Islam in the regions of the interior. No comprehensive research has been made on
the spread of Islam in the caravan towns of the interior of nineteenth-century Tanzania, with the possible exception of the chapter by D. Sperling in Levtzion and Pouwels . Further research
in this area is very much needed, also in order to balance our definitely better knowledge on the development of Islam in the coastal areas of East Africa [see, among others, Pouwels 1987;
Middleton 1992; Le Guennec-Coppens 1997] and in the Indian Ocean [see, among others, Freitag and Clarence Smith 1997; Parkin and Headley 2000; Simpson and Kresse 2008].